Blood Crust

Blood clots typically appear as primarily hyporeflective amorphous structures presenting with a heterogeneous texture, a combination of hyperreflective speckle and areflective spaces Unlike keratin plaques blood clots, while having a similar appearance, do not cause distinct bands of shadow but in some cases may produce a diffuse shadow on lower layers Blood clots beneath the […]


Loss of normal papillary dermis and reticular dermis contrast Single homogenous hyperreflective texture corresponding to densely packed collagen bundles minimal fluid Fine vessels may be evident in healing scars Can occur with a hyporeflective area underneath scar indicating perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate (*) Similar to scar tissue healed biopsy sites have increased dermal collagen hyperreflectivity and […]

Sun Damaged Skin

Epidermal atrophy, loss of papillary dermis Dermal mottled texture loss due to collagen solar elastosis also accounting for loss of vasculature Diffuse erythema and tissue fluid pockets common in lower reticular dermis regions

Traumatised Skin

Result of mechanical trauma Loss of epidermis dermis contrast, absence of papillary dermis, reticular dermis mottled texture loss due to collagen damage. Areflective pockets and diffuse areas due to erythema

Sebaceous Glands

Hyporeflective ovoid structures associated with the hair matrix Possess a “hazy” granular texture due to cell aggregations and secretary lumen spaces within the gland tissue Located within the reticular dermis, full gland not usually seen Typically only the upper facing of the gland is seen The “hazy” granular texture of the gland’s cells is often […]

Hair Follicles

Hyporeflective, near areflective diagonal structures tapering toward the epidermis Slight granular texture corresponding to the hair matrix Hair seen protruding from epidermal surface The full hair bulb may not always be visible, however even at the edge of the structure it still displays a tapering at the epidermis facing side Hyperreflective areas can be seen […]


Hyporeflective (areflective if lymph) tube structures with tapering ends Flow evident in blood vessels Vessels in healthy skin typically stay at a constant level in the dermis Alteration to vessel patterns and sizes can be observed in certain pathologies


Top layer of skin starting at the band of hyperreflectivity Heterogeneous granular texture due to cells with differing intracellular keratin content Thin Stratum Corneum sometimes observed beneath the hyperreflective band caused by surface reflection Thickness changes can be observed in different anatomical regions, hydration states and pathologies

Dermal-Epidermal Junction

Interface of the epidermis and the papillary dermis Identified by dramatic change in contrast or in instances a fine hyporeflective line at the interface DEJ appearance involves Stratum Basale and the Rete pegs The hyporeflective line at the interface differs in prominence between skin and may be entirely absent in some regions In all healthy […]

Papillary Dermis

Hyperreflective mottled layer beneath the DEJ Texture and intensity due to packed collagen bundles with minimal fluid and vessel content Less prominent in aged and sun damaged skin Can appear thinner on various anatomical regions Can be completely absent in heavy sun damage or pathology